1821-2020| Greek Independence Day 25th of March – History Timeline
Defence Redefined
Published on 25/03/2020 at 19:44

Since 1814 “Philiki Etaireia”, or “Society of Friends”, paved the way for the uprising of the Greeks against the Turks, by organizing the Revolution.

“The vow” by Dionisios Tsokos


Siege of Kalavryta, led by Sotiris Charalampi, A. Fotila, Sotiris Theocharopoulos, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Nikolaos Soliotis and Petimezaioi. The first military action of the Greek revolution will end victoriously after 5 days.


Maniates, under the guidance of Theodoros Kolokotronis and Petrompei Mavromichali, occupy Kalamata. After this battle, the international community learns about the Greek revolution.

Representation of the “blessing” in Kalamata on March the 23rd, by the painter Evangelos Drakos


Athanasios Diakos was defeated in the battle of Alamana by the Turkish forces under Kiose Mehmet and Omer Vryonis. His martyred death follows.

Alexandros Isaias painting, inspired by the battle of Alamana


Victory of the Greeks led by Odysseas Androutsos in the battle of Gravia Inn. Lykourgos Logothetis declares revolution in Samos.


Hanging of Cyprus Archbishop Kiprianos along with three other bishops upon order from the “Sublime Porte”. The massacres continued throughout Cyprus for 30 days. 

“The Greeks are a race as old as the world, no one was able to annihilate them, no one, because God shelters them from up above. The Greek race will vanish, when the world comes to an end”  Translated extract from “The 9th of July in Nicosia Cyprus” by Cypriot poet Vassilis Michaelides. Originally written in Cypriot dialect.

9th of July 1821 Cyprus


Theodoros Kolokotronis conquers Tripolitsa after a siege. A strategic victory which secures control of the Peloponnese.


Adoption of the first Constitution of Greece, in the First National Assembly of Epidaurus.


The massacre of Chios. 42,000 Christians are slaughtered by the Ottoman army.

“The massacre of Chios” By Eugène Delacroix

In June 1822, the later Greek state Prime Minister Konstantinos Kanaris blasts the flagship of Kara Ali, the head of the Turks, who slaughtered the inhabitants of Chios

“Burning of the Turkish flagship by Kanaris” by Nikiforos Lytras


Theodoros Kolokotronis destroys Dramalis’ army in the straits of Dervenakia. One of the biggest defeats of the Turks in Central Greece.

The battle of Dervenakia” by Theodore Vryzakis

August 1823

Markos Botsaris with the Souliotes and Kitsos Tzavelas (later General and Prime Minister) inflicts heavy losses on Mustafa Pasha’s forces in the Battle of Kefalovrysso. Markos Botsaris falls dead heroically.

Period 1823-1825 

A black page in Greek Revolution history was the period during which the civil conflicts took place. Originally in the Peloponnese, the civil war between supporters of the government of Georgios Kountouriotis and the government of Petrobei Mavromichalis was ongoing. The Koundouriotis government eventually prevailed, offering amnesty to its opponents.

However, the riots continued and, as a result, Kolokotronis, who backed the Mavromichalis government, was imprisoned.

In Central Greece, a complete breach between Odysseas Androutsos and the revolutionary provisional government took place. In March 1825, Androutsos was defeated in Livanates by Giannis Gouras, who once was Androutsos’ second in command. Androutsos was imprisoned in Acropolis, but he later was assassinated prior to his trial.


Death of heroic Papaflessas at the Battle of Maniaki. He fought against the Egyptian forces of Ibrahim.


“The sortie of Messolonghi”

After months under siege, the “free besieged” defenders of Messolonghi decide their heroic exit. The massacre of armed and civilian population by the Turkish-Egyptian forces followed. The fall of Messolonghi led to the resignation of the Kountouriotis government.

Snapshot from the painting “The sortie of Messolonghi” by Theodore Vryzakis


Defeat of the Turks by George Karaiskakis in the Battle of Arachova. For the Turks it was the second major disaster after the Dervenakia defeat.


“The naval battle of Navarino.” The fleet, consisting of naval forces of the United Kingdom, France and Russia, defeats the Turkish fleet of Ibrahim. An important development in favor of the Greek Revolution.

The naval battle of Navarino” by Ambroise Louis Garneray


Election of Kapodistrias as the first Greek governor by the 3rd National Assembly of Trizina.

“Ioannis Kapodistrias” by Thomas Lawrence


The London Protocol is signed. The independent Greek State is “born”

Women’s contribution to the Revolution

Laskarina Bouboulina, along with Manto Mavrogenous, were the two leading female figures of the Greek Revolution who not only bought warships at their own expense, but also participated in naval operations.

Bouboulina on the ship “Agamemnon” by German painter Peter von Hess

Lithograph of Manto Mavrogenous by Adam Friedel

Cyprus’ contribution to the nation’s struggles

Cyprus’ contribution to the Nation’s struggles was significant. Hundreds of Cypriots fought in the Peloponnese, Attica, Eastern Greece as well as in naval operations.

“Τhese were given to me by the heroism and bravery of Cypriots phalangists”

Quote of General, Christodoulos Hatzipetrou, regarding his medals

The flag of the “Phalanx of the Cypriots” during the Greek Revolution

March 25th was established as Independence Day and as an official holiday following a decree of King Otto in 1838. Together with the Greek Independence Day, the religious holiday of the Virgin Mary’s Annunciation is celebrated.

Today, the Greek Revolution is honored with military and student parades in Greece, Cyprus as well as by Hellenes Abroad.




Pin It on Pinterest

Share This